Glossary

a-synucléine: protein in the human brain which is involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease

Adipocyte: a cell that stores fat

Adipokine: cytokines that are synthesised and secreted by fatty tissue; they can have pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory properties.

ADME: set of technologies that can measure absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of molecules.

Agonist: a synthetic molecule that mimics the effect of an endogenous ligand.

panPPAR agoniste: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptors that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes. A panPPAR agonist is a molecule that can activatethe three sub-types of PPAR: PPARa, PPARd and PPARg.

MA: marketing authorisation

Adenoidectomy: an adenoidectomy is the surgical removal of the adenoids

Antiproliferative: prevents or blocks the cell proliferation.

B-Crosslaps: B-Crosslaps (CTX) is a marker of bone remodelling, its increase indicates excessive bone destruction.

BLP: Best Laboratory Practices

Hematopoietic stem cells: haematopoietic stem cells are produced in the bone marrow and make different blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

Bariatric surgery: bariatric surgery is a type of surgery that involves restricting the absorption of food thus decreasing daily calorie intake. It is a surgical treatment for obesity.

CPK: CPK (creatine phosphokinase) is an enzyme whose presence in the blood helps to diagnose muscle, cardiac or brain damage, essentially and independently from its aetiology (cause) including myopathies, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents accompanied by destruction of brain tissue (brain necrosis).

Cytokine: a broad category of small proteins which are important in cell signalling.

Dermatan sulphate: a sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acétylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid). It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan, found mostly in skin, but also in blood vessels, heart valves, tendons and lungs.

Dyslipidemia: dyslipidemia is a qualitative or quantitative anomaly of one or more plasma lipid(s): total cholesterol (TC) and its fractions, HDL, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) and triglycerides (TG). Several of these anomalies are linked to cardiovascular risk.

Dysostosis: very rare serious congenital malformation of one or more bones.

Lipogenic enzymes: hepatic enzymes responsible for the synthesis of triglycerides.

PK/PD study: a PK/PD study is a clinical pharmacology study which studies the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) ratio of the drug so that the plasma concentration of the drug can be adjusted according to its efficacy and/or toxicity.

Transcription factors: a class of proteins found in the nucleus of cells which have the capacity to bind themselves directly to DNA and to regulate the expression of adjacent genes.

Fibroblast: a fibroblast is a type of cell responsible for making the extracellular matrix and collagen. Together, this extracellular matrix and collagen form the structural framework of tissues in animals and plays an important role in tissue repair.

Fibrosis: fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue, in a reparative or reactive process. This can be a reactive, benign or pathological state. Physiologically, fibrosis acts to deposit connective tissue, which can obliterate the architecture and function of the underlying organ or tissue.

GMP: Good Manufacturing Practice

HDL or "good cholesterol": HDL-cholesterol is a high-density lipoprotein (substance formed of lipids and proteins). Insofar as it is involved in the elimination of cholesterol, it is also called "good cholesterol" because an increased presence is considered to be a factor in the protection against cardiovascular risk.

Hepatosplenomegaly: simultaneous enlargement of both the liver (hepatomegaly) and the spleen (splenomegaly).

HOMA: HOMA or Homeostasic Model Assessment of insulinresistanceis a method used to quantify insulin resistance.

Insulin resistance: insulin resistance is generally considered to be a pathological state in which cells do not respond to the normal action of the hormone insulin. The body produces insulin. When the body produces insulin in insulin resistance conditions, the body's cells are resistant to insulin and incapable of using it effectively, which causes high blood sugar levels.

IPF:  Interstitialpulmonary fibrosis.

Ligand: a biological molecule that binds to  a protein and activates it.

LTS or Leukotrienes: leukotrienes are molecules that contribute to inflammation and insulin resistance.

B lymphocytes: B lymphocytes, or B cells, are a specific type of white blood cells forming part of lymphocytes. They are responsible for humoral immunity and produce immunoglobulins called antibodies.

T lymphocytes: a type of lymphocyte (type of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cellular mediated immunity.

Lysosomes: intracelleular spherical vesicles which contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down virtually all kinds of biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids and cellular debris.

Raynaud's disease or Raynaud's phenomenon: In medicine, Raynaud's disease or Raynaud's phenomenon is excessively reduced blood flow in response to cold or emotional stress, causing discolouration of the fingers, toes, and occasionally other areas. When the disorder's cause is idiopathic, it is referred to as Raynaud's disease (also called primary Raynaud's); if the syndrome is secondary to another disease such as systemic sclerosis, Scleroderma, or other connective tissue disorders, it is correctly referred to as Raynaud's phenomenon (secondary Raynaud's).

Epigenetic modulation: epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a dynamic reversible process which creates normal cellular phenotypes but also contributes to the appearance of diseases. Epigenetic factors are involved in all cancer types, in inflammatory or auto-immune diseases, and have been recognised over the years as being highly promising targets in the area of drug development.

Mucopolysaccharide or GAG: Glycosaminoglycans or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating unit (except for keratan) consists of an amino sugar (N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine) along with a uronic sugar (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose. Glycosaminoglycans are highly polar and attract water. They are therefore useful to the body as a lubricant or as a shock absorber.

Myofibroblasts: myofibroblasts are fibroblasts with the feature that they express the actin α-SMA. They play an important role in cell plasticity, migration and motility within connective tissue. Fibroblasts become myofibroblasts as a result of changes in the surrounding tensions. These cells play a vital role in healing by allowing the wound to contract and producing a temporary extracellular matrix.

Myringotomy: a surgical procedure to make an opening to evacuate liquid.

NSD2: epigenetic enzyme that controls methylation of lysine 39 at histone 3.

Oncogenesis: oncogenesis is all of the factors and mechanisms behind cancers or malignant tumours.

Proteoglycans: a proteoglycan is the combination of a protein and a GAG.

CB2 receptors: CB2 receptors act as antagonists of G protein receptors and seem to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect.

Nuclear receptors: a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for reading genes in response to external stimuli. These receptors work with other proteins to regulate the expression of specific genes, thereby controlling the homeostasis of the organism.

RORg: Nuclear receptor controlling the differentiation of Th17 cells and the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL17A, IL17F and IL22.

Systemic sclerosis: Systemic sclerosis or scleroderma is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue. It is characterised by thickening of the skin caused by accumulation of collagen, and by injuries to small arteries. There are two forms of the disease that overlap. Limited cutaneous scleroderma affects only the face, hands, and feet. Diffuse cutaneous scleroderma covers more of the skin and may progress to visceral organs, including the kidneys, heart, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract.

Chondroitin sulphate: a sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acétylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid). It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan. Chondroitin sulphate is an important structural component of cartilage and provides much of its resistance to compression.

Transforming Growth factor- b: Transforming Growth factor- b is a family of multifunctional cytokines which regulate cell growth and differentiation.

Chromosomal translocation: chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of chromosome material between nonhomologous chromosomes.

YAP/TEAD: two transcription factors which are Hippo pathway effectors and which combine in the nucleus of the cell to regulate the genes responsible for cell proliferation and death.